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Children and gender inequality: evidence from Denmark

Kleven, Henrik, Landais, Camille and Søgaard, Jakob Egholt (2019) Children and gender inequality: evidence from Denmark. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 11 (4). pp. 181-209. ISSN 1945-7782

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Identification Number: 10.1257/app.20180010

Abstract

Using Danish administrative data, we study the impacts of children on gender inequality in the labor market. The arrival of children creates a long-run gender gap in earnings of around 20 percent driven by hours worked, participation, and wage rates. We identify mechanisms driving these "child penalties" in terms of occupation, sector, and firm choices. We find that the fraction of gender inequality caused by child penalties has featured a dramatic increase over the last three to four decades. Finally, we show that child penalties are transmitted through generations, from parents to daughters, suggesting an influence of childhood environment on gender identity.

Item Type: Article
Official URL: https://www.aeaweb.org/journals/app
Additional Information: © 2019 American Economic Association
Divisions: Economics
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HQ The family. Marriage. Woman
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions
JEL classification: D - Microeconomics > D6 - Welfare Economics > D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J16 - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J2 - Time Allocation, Work Behavior, and Employment Determination and Creation; Human Capital; Retirement > J22 - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J3 - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs > J31 - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials by Skill, Training, Occupation, etc.
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J7 - Labor Discrimination > J71 - Discrimination
Date Deposited: 04 Nov 2019 16:33
Last Modified: 20 Jan 2020 07:07
URI: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/102364

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