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Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database

Reed, Catherine, Hong, Jihyung, Novick, Diego, Lenox-Smith, Alan J. and Happich, Michael (2013) Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Clinicoeconomics and Outcomes Research, 5 (1). pp. 37-47. ISSN 1178-6981

Full text not available from this repository.
Identification Number: 10.2147/CEOR.S38323

Abstract

Purpose: To assess the impact of pain severity and time to diagnosis of depression on health care costs for primary care patients with pre-existing unexplained pain symptoms who subsequently received a diagnosis of depression. Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 4000 adults with unexplained pain (defined as painful physical symptoms [PPS] without any probable organic cause) and a subsequent diagnosis of depression, identified from the UK General Practice Research Database using diagnostic codes. Patients were categorized into four groups based on pain severity (milder or more severe; based on number of pain-relief medications and use of opioids) and time to diagnosis of depression (≤ year or >1 year from PPS index date). Annual health care costs were calculated (2009 values) and included general practitioner (GP) consultations, secondary care referrals, and prescriptions for pain-relief medications for the 12 months before depression diagnosis and in the subsequent 2 years. Multivariate models of cost included time period as a main independent variable, and adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities. Results: Total annual health care costs before and after depression diagnosis for the four patient groups were higher for the groups with more severe pain (£819-£988 versus £565-£628; P,<0.001 for all pairwise comparisons) and highest for the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis in the subsequent 2 years (P,<0.05). Total GP costs were highest in the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis both before and after depression diagnosis (P,<0.05). In the second year following depression diagnosis, this group also had the highest secondary care referral costs (P,<0.01). The highest drug costs were in the groups with more severe pain (P,<0.001), although costs within each group were similar before and after depression diagnosis. Conclusion: Among patients with unexplained pain symptoms, significant pain in combination with longer time from pain symptoms to depression diagnosis contribute to higher costs for the UK health care system.

Item Type: Article
Official URL: http://www.dovepress.com/clinicoeconomics-and-outc...
Additional Information: © 2013 Reed et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
Divisions: LSE Health
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
Sets: Research centres and groups > LSE Health
Date Deposited: 05 Feb 2013 13:33
Last Modified: 20 May 2021 02:03
Funders: Eli Lilly and Company Limited
URI: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/48265

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