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Servant leadership: development of a multidimensional measure and multilevel assessment

Liden, Robert C., Wayne, Sandy J., Zhao, Hao and Henderson, David J. (2008) Servant leadership: development of a multidimensional measure and multilevel assessment. Leadership Quarterly, 19 (2). pp. 161-177. ISSN 1048-9843

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Identification Number: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.01.006


Servant leadership stresses personal integrity and serving others, including employees, customers, and communities. This article focuses on a servant leadership measure that was created by identifying 9 dimensions. Relevant items were then developed and subjected to factor analysis with a sample of 298 students, resulting in a 7-factor solution. Using an organizational sample of 182 individuals, we verified this 7-factor model with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We further validated our 28-item servant leadership scale by regressing outcomes on the servant leadership dimensions, controlling for transformational leadership and leader–member exchange (LMX) in a multi-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis. The results suggest that servant leadership is a multidimensional construct and at the individual level makes a unique contribution beyond transformational leadership and LMX in explaining community citizenship behaviors, in-role performance, and organizational commitment. No between-leader (group-level) differences were found in the outcomes variables.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2008 Elsevier B.V.
Divisions: LSE
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD28 Management. Industrial Management
Date Deposited: 11 Aug 2009 15:14
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2024 23:11

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