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Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Higher Education Stress Inventory (HESI-Br)

Gonçalves Pacheco, João Pedro, Scopel Hoffmann, Mauricio, Braun, Luiza Elizabete, Poletto Medeiros, Isabella, Casarotto, Damaris, Hauck, Simone, Porru, Fabio, Herlo, Michael and Crestani Calegaro, Vitor (2023) Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Higher Education Stress Inventory (HESI-Br). Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 45. ISSN 2237-6089

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Identification Number: 10.47626/2237-6089-2021-0445


Objectives There are no validated instruments to measure education-related stress in Brazilian university students. Thus, we aimed to translate and test the internal reliability, convergent/discriminant validity, and measurement equivalence of the Higher Education Stress Inventory (HESI). Methods The translation protocol was carried out by two independent translators. The instrument was culturally adapted after a pilot version was administered to 36 university students. The final version (HESI-Br) was administered to 1,021 university students (mean age = 28.3, standard deviation [SD] = 9.6, 76.7% female) via an online survey that lasted from September 1 to October 15, 2020. The factor structure was estimated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the first half of the dataset. We tested the best EFA-derived model with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the second half. Convergent/discriminant validity was tested using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Sex, age groups, period of study, family income and area of study were used to test measurement equivalence. Results EFA suggested five factors: career dissatisfaction; faculty shortcomings; high workload; financial concerns; and toxic learning environment. CFA supported the five-factor model (15 items), but not a higher order factor, suggesting multidimensionality. All five factors presented acceptable internal reliabilities, with Cronbach’s α ≥ 0.72 and McDonald’s ω ≥ 0.64. CFA models indicated that the HESI-Br and DASS-21 assess different but correlated underlying latent constructs, supporting discriminant validity. Equivalence was ascertained for all tested groups. Conclusion The 15-item HESI-Br is a reliable and invariant multidimensional instrument for assessing relevant stressors among university students in Brazil.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2023 Sociedade de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul
Divisions: Personal Social Services Research Unit
Subjects: L Education > LB Theory and practice of education > LB2300 Higher Education
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Date Deposited: 12 May 2022 10:00
Last Modified: 23 Jun 2024 17:09

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