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Paradox of diversity in the collective brain

Schimmelpfennig, Robin, Razek, Layla, Schnell, Eric and Muthukrishna, Michael ORCID: 0000-0002-7079-5166 (2021) Paradox of diversity in the collective brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. ISSN 0962-8436 (In Press)

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Abstract

Human societies are collective brains. People within every society have cultural brains—brains that have evolved to selectively seek out adaptive knowledge and socially transmit solutions. Innovations emerge at a population level through the transmission of serendipitous mistakes, incremental improvements, and novel recombinations. The rate of innovation through these mechanisms is a function of (1) a society’s size and interconnectedness (sociality), which affects the number of models available for learning; (2) fidelity of information transmission, which affects how much information is lost during social learning; and (3) cultural trait diversity, which affects the range of possible solutions available for recombination. In general, and perhaps surprisingly, all three levers can increase and harm innovation by creating challenges around coordination, conformity, and communication. Here we focus on the ‘paradox of diversity’—that cultural trait diversity offers the largest potential for empowering innovation, but also poses difficult challenges at both an organisational and societal level. We introduce ‘cultural evolvability’ as a framework for tackling these challenges, with implications for entrepreneurship, polarisation, and a nuanced understanding of the effects of diversity. This framework can guide researchers and practitioners in how to reap the benefits of diversity by reducing costs.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Grantham Research Institute
Psychological and Behavioural Science
Date Deposited: 06 Oct 2021 13:36
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2021 10:54
URI: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/112198

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