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Generalized exchange orientation: conceptualization and scale development

Yoshikawa, Katsuhhiko, Wu, Chia-Huei and Lee, Hyun-Jung (2020) Generalized exchange orientation: conceptualization and scale development. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105 (3). 294 - 311. ISSN 0021-9010

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Identification Number: 10.1037/apl0000438


We conceptualize generalized exchange orientation, and develop and validate a scale assessing individual orientations toward generalized exchange as well as reciprocal and negotiated exchange for offering a full set of measurements for social exchange orientation. Through 4 phases and using data from 1,408 participants, we established factorial, nomological, discriminant, and incremental validity of the social exchange orientation Scale and examined measurement invariance of the scale between samples from the United States and Japan. First, our findings indicate the newly developed scale for generalized exchange orientation (GEO) is distinct from measures of other forms of social exchange orientation and prosocial orientation. Second, the GEO Scale shows incremental validity as it predicts citizenship behaviors toward individuals above and beyond the key dispositional antecedents known in the literature. Implications and future research on generalized exchange are discussed.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2019 American Psychological Association
Divisions: Management
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD28 Management. Industrial Management
Date Deposited: 02 Sep 2019 11:57
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2021 02:41

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