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Barriers to the implementation of green chemistry in the United States

Matus, Kira J. M. and Clark, William C. and Anastas, Paul T. and Zimmerman, Julie B. (2012) Barriers to the implementation of green chemistry in the United States. Environmental Science and Technology, 46 (20). pp. 10892-10899. ISSN 0013-936X

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Identification Number: 10.1021/es3021777


This paper investigates the conditions under which firms are able to develop and implement innovations with sustainable development benefits. In particular, we examine “green chemistry” innovations in the United States. Via interviews with green chemistry leaders from industry, academia, nongovernmental institutions (NGOs), and government, we identified six major categories of challenges commonly confronted by innovators: (1) economic and financial, (2) regulatory, (3) technical, (4) organizational, (5) cultural, and (6) definition and metrics. Further analysis of these barriers shows that in the United States, two elements of these that are particular to the implementation of green chemistry innovations are the absence of clear definitions and metrics for use by researchers and decision makers, as well as the interdisciplinary demands of these innovations on researchers and management. Finally, we conclude with some of the strategies that have been successful thus far in overcoming these barriers, and the types of policies which could have positive impacts moving forward.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2012 American Chemical Society
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD61 Risk Management
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Sets: Departments > Government
Research centres and groups > Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation (CARR)
Date Deposited: 18 Oct 2012 15:50
Last Modified: 18 Oct 2012 15:50

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