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Are environmental social movements socially exclusive? An historical study from Thailand

Forsyth, Tim (2007) Are environmental social movements socially exclusive? An historical study from Thailand. World Development, 35 (12). pp. 2110-2130. ISSN 0305-750X

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Identification Number: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.01.005


Environmental social movements in developing countries are often portrayed as democratizing but may contain important social divisions. This paper presents a new methodology to analyze the social composition and underlying political messages of movements. Nearly 5 000 newspaper reports during 1968–2000 in Thailand are analyzed to indicate the participation of middle and lower classes, and their association with “green” (conservationist) and “red-green” (livelihoods-oriented) environmental values. Results show middle-class “green” activism has dominated forests activism, but lower-class “red-green” activism has grown for forests and pollution. Newspapers, however, portray all environmentalism as “democratization,” suggesting that the possible exclusiveness of some environmental norms is unacknowledged.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2007 Elsevier
Divisions: International Development
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography (General)
H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
Sets: Research centres and groups > BIOS (Centre for the Study of Bioscience, Biomedicine, Biotechnology and Society)
Departments > International Development
Date Deposited: 06 May 2008 15:57
Last Modified: 20 Feb 2021 01:19

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