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Does the ‘California effect’ operate across borders? trading- and investing-up in automobile emission standards

Perkins, Richard and Neumayer, Eric ORCID: 0000-0003-2719-7563 (2012) Does the ‘California effect’ operate across borders? trading- and investing-up in automobile emission standards. Journal of European Public Policy, 19 (2). pp. 217-237. ISSN 1350-1763

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Identification Number: 10.1080/13501763.2011.609725


The 'California effect' hypothesis posits that economic integration may lead to the ratcheting upwards of regulatory standards towards levels found in higher-regulating jurisdictions. Although a number of previous large sample quantitative studies have investigated such convergence dynamics for public environmental policies, their results have been based exclusively on geographically and sectorally aggregated data. Our contribution advances on these studies. We provide the first large-N, geographically disaggregated evidence consistent with a trading-up effect: exports of automobiles and related components from developing countries to countries with more stringent automobile emission standards are found to be associated with more stringent domestic emission standards. Investing-up dynamics are also apparent, with aggregate inward foreign direct investment into host developing economies' automotive sector increasing the likelihood of more stringent emission standards domestically.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group
Divisions: Geography & Environment
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GF Human ecology. Anthropogeography
H Social Sciences > HB Economic Theory
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2012 15:36
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2021 01:56

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