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Confusion, social knowledge and the design of intelligent machines

Whitley, Edgar A. (1996) Confusion, social knowledge and the design of intelligent machines. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 8 (3&4). pp. 365-381. ISSN 0952-813X

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Identification Number: 10.1080/095281396147375


This paper explores the notion of confusion as it applies to the design of intelligent machines and suggests that it arises from the social nature of knowledge. It provides a framework for analysing the causes of confusion and shows how confusion normally reveals itself after the cause of the confusion has occurred. This places practical limitations on how intelligent machines can react to confusion when it is noticed. The paper also describes a prototype system that aims to minimize the effects of confusion by allowing the users to explore the design rationale of the system.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 1996 Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Divisions: Management
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
Date Deposited: 03 Mar 2010 16:49
Last Modified: 20 Mar 2021 02:36

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