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Public health concerns surrounding the cVDPV2 outbreak in Africa: strategies for prevention and control with a special focus on Nigeria

Adesola, Ridwan O., Idris, Ibrahim and Opuni, Emmanuel (2023) Public health concerns surrounding the cVDPV2 outbreak in Africa: strategies for prevention and control with a special focus on Nigeria. Health Science Reports, 6 (5). ISSN 2398-8835

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Identification Number: 10.1002/hsr2.1269

Abstract

Background and Aim: Poliovirus is a global health issue that affects children in different parts of the world. Despite the efforts of national, international, and nongovernmental organizations to eradicate the disease, it is re-emerging in Africa due to poor sanitation, vaccine hesitancy, new ways of transmission, and poor surveillance among others. Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) is a major step in eradicating poliovirus and preventing outbreaks in developing countries. Strengthening African healthcare systems, increasing surveillance, hygiene and sanitation, and proper mass vaccination to achieve herd immunity are required in the fight against polio disease. This paper discusses the outbreak of cVDPV2, public health challenges, and recommendations in Africa with a special emphasis on Nigeria. Methods: We searched for articles documenting the incidence of cVDPV2 in Nigeria and other African countries on Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. Results: A total of 68 distinct cVDPV2 genetic emergences were found across 34 nations between April 2016 to December 2020, and in Nigeria, three cVDPV2 emergences were found. Also, 1596 instances of acute flaccid paralysis linked to cVDPV2 outbreaks were reported in four areas of the World Health Organization where Africa contributed 962 cases out of 1596 cases. Available data indicate that Africa has the most cVDPV2 cases and is associated with various challenges like the unidentified virus source, poor sanitation system, and inability to achieve herd immunity of the cVDPV2 vaccine. Conclusion: Collaborative efforts of stakeholders are crucial in combating infectious diseases, especially those transmitted via environments such as water and air, like poliovirus. Therefore, a collaboration between environmental health workers, veterinarians, community health workers, laboratory scientists, policymakers, and other professionals is required.

Item Type: Article
Official URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/23988835
Additional Information: © 2023 The Author(s)
Divisions: Health Policy
Subjects: R Medicine
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2023 23:24
Last Modified: 19 May 2024 07:06
URI: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/119465

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