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The economic costs of malaria in pregnancy: evidence from four sub-Saharan countries

Cirera, Laia, Sacoor, Charfudin, Meremikwu, Martin, Ranaivo, Louise, F. Manun’Ebo, Manu, Arikpo, Dachi, Matavele, Osvaldo, Rafaralahy, Victor, Ndombe, Didier, Pons Duran, Clara, Ramirez, Maximo, Ramponi, Francesco, González, Raquel, Maly, Christina, Roman, Elaine, Sicuri, Elisa ORCID: 0000-0002-2499-2732, Pagnoni, Franco and Menéndez, Clara (2023) The economic costs of malaria in pregnancy: evidence from four sub-Saharan countries. Gates Open Research, 7. p. 47. ISSN 2572-4754 (In Press)

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Identification Number: 10.12688/gatesopenres.14375.2


Background Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which imposes a significant economic burden. We provide evidence on the costs of malaria care in pregnancy to households and the health system in four high-burden countries in SSA.  Methods Household and health system economic costs associated with malaria control in pregnancy were estimated in selected areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar (MDG), Mozambique (MOZ) and Nigeria (NGA). An exit survey was administered to 2,031 pregnant women when leaving the antenatal care (ANC) clinic from October 2020 to June 2021. Women reported the direct and indirect costs associated to malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy. To estimate health system costs, we interviewed health workers from 133 randomly selected health facilities. Costs were estimated using an ingredients-based approach. Results Average household costs of malaria prevention per pregnancy were USD6.33 in DRC, USD10.06 in MDG, USD15.03 in MOZ and USD13.33 in NGA. Household costs of treating an episode of uncomplicated/complicated malaria were USD22.78/USD46 in DRC, USD16.65/USD35.65 in MDG, USD30.54/USD61.25 in MOZ and USD18.92/USD44.71 in NGA, respectively. Average health system costs of malaria prevention per pregnancy were USD10.74 in DRC, USD16.95 in MDG, USD11.17 in MOZ and USD15.64 in NGA. Health system costs associated with treating an episode of uncomplicated/complicated malaria were USD4.69/USD101.41 in DRC, USD3.61/USD63.33 in MDG, USD4.68/USD83.70 in MOZ and USD4.09/USD92.64 in NGA. These estimates resulted in societal costs of malaria prevention and treatment per pregnancy of USD31.72 in DRC, USD29.77 in MDG, USD31.98 in MOZ and USD46.16 in NGA. Conclusions Malaria in pregnancy imposes a high economic burden on households and the health system. Findings emphasize the importance of investing in effective strategies that improve access to malaria control and reduce the burden of the infection in pregnancy.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2023 The Author(s)
Divisions: LSE Health
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HB Economic Theory
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR180 Immunology
JEL classification: I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I10 - General
Date Deposited: 12 Jun 2023 15:54
Last Modified: 26 May 2024 04:48

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