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Canine socialisation: a narrative systematic review

McEvoy, Victoria, Espinosa, Uri Baqueiro, Crump, Andrew ORCID: 0000-0003-4485-5740 and Arnott, Gareth (2022) Canine socialisation: a narrative systematic review. Animals, 12 (21). ISSN 2076-2615

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Identification Number: 10.3390/ani12212895


There are over 10 million pet dogs in the UK alone, and they have become a member of modern human families. If not properly socialised as puppies, dogs have a higher risk of problematic behaviours during adulthood, yet socialisation studies are lacking. Much of the experimental research was carried out at least 50 years ago, and the importance of socialisation was demonstrated so clearly that further studies with unsocialised controls would be deemed unethical. In this review, the aim was to evaluate all literature relevant to canine socialisation. This review used PRISMA-P guidelines to identify 29 studies: 14 were questionnaire-based studies (two of which also had a testing element), 15 included some form of experimental manipulation relating to socialisation, and one was a purely observational study. Based on this literature review, we recommend future research into minimum necessary socialisation levels, as well as breed differences in the timing of effective socialisation. Such studies will help owners and breeders produce well-adjusted adult dogs.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2022 The Author(s).
Divisions: CPNSS
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > B Philosophy (General)
S Agriculture > SF Animal culture
Date Deposited: 23 Nov 2022 14:42
Last Modified: 14 Jun 2024 21:51

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