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Young people's perceptions of their parents' expectations and criticism are increasing over time: implications for perfectionism

Curran, Thomas ORCID: 0000-0003-2443-5079 and Hill, Andrew P. (2022) Young people's perceptions of their parents' expectations and criticism are increasing over time: implications for perfectionism. Psychological Bulletin, 148 (1-2). 107 – 128. ISSN 0033-2909

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Identification Number: 10.1037/bu10000347

Abstract

Recent evidence demonstrates rising self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism among young people from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada (Curran & Hill, 2019). One reason why perfectionism is increasing may be that rising competitiveness and individualism are requiring parents to engage in anxious, overly involved, and/or overly controlling forms of parenting. Yet, data to support this claim are limited and contested. In two meta-analyses, we expanded upon and tested this claim by examining whether excessive parental expectations and harsh parental criticism are correlated with perfectionism (Study 1) and whether these perceived practices are changing over time among American, Canadian, and British college students (Study 2). In Study 1, meta-analyses found small-to-moderate positive mean weighted effects of parental expectations and parental criticism on self-oriented and other-oriented perfectionism, and large positive mean weighted effects of parental expectations and parental criticism on socially prescribed perfectionism. In Study 2, using cross-temporal meta-analysis, we found that mean levels of parental expectations and parental criticism had linearly increased between 1989 and 2019 among college students. With rising competitiveness, individualism, economic inequality, and pressure to excel at school and college as the societal background, increases in parental expectations and parental criticism offer the most plausible explanation for rising perfectionism to date.

Item Type: Article
Official URL: https://psycnet.apa.org/PsycARTICLES/journal/bul/1...
Additional Information: © 2022 American Psychological Association
Divisions: Psychological and Behavioural Science
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Date Deposited: 07 Jun 2022 15:18
Last Modified: 13 Jul 2022 09:06
URI: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/115306

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