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Cost-effectiveness of Midazolam versus Haloperidol versus Olanzapine for the management of acute agitation in the Accident and Emergency department

Yan, Vincent K.C., Haendler, Miriam, Lau, Hayden, Li, Xue, Lao, Kim S.J., Tsui, Sik Hon, Yap, Celene Y.L., Knapp, Martin ORCID: 0000-0003-1427-0215 and Chan, Esther W. (2022) Cost-effectiveness of Midazolam versus Haloperidol versus Olanzapine for the management of acute agitation in the Accident and Emergency department. Value in Health, 25 (7). 1099 - 1106. ISSN 1098-3015

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Identification Number: 10.1016/j.jval.2021.11.1374


Objectives: A multicenter randomized clinical trial in Hong Kong Accident and Emergency (A&E) departments concluded that intramuscular (IM) olanzapine is noninferior to haloperidol and midazolam, in terms of efficacy and safety, for the management of acutely agitated patients in A&E setting. Determining their comparative cost-effectiveness will further provide an economic perspective to inform the choice of sedative in this setting. Methods: This analysis used data from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Hong Kong A&E departments between December 2014 and September 2019. A within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the 3 sedatives was conducted, from the A&E perspective and a within-trial time horizon, using a decision-analytic model. Sensitivity analyses were also undertaken. Results: In the base-case analysis, median total management costs associated with IM midazolam, haloperidol, and olanzapine were Hong Kong dollar (HKD) 1958.9 (US dollar [USD] 251.1), HKD 2504.5 (USD 321.1), and HKD 2467.6 (USD 316.4), respectively. Agitation management labor cost was the main cost driver, whereas drug costs contributed the least. Midazolam dominated over haloperidol and olanzapine. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses supported that midazolam remains dominant > 95% of the time and revealed no clear difference in the cost-effectiveness of IM olanzapine versus haloperidol (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio 667.16; 95% confidence interval −770.89, 685.90). Conclusions: IM midazolam is the dominant cost-effective treatment for the management of acute agitation in the A&E setting. IM olanzapine could be considered as an alternative to IM haloperidol given that there is no clear difference in cost-effectiveness, and their adverse effect profile should be considered when choosing between them.

Item Type: Article
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Additional Information: © 2022 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, Inc.
Divisions: Personal Social Services Research Unit
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Date Deposited: 25 Feb 2022 18:24
Last Modified: 05 Jul 2024 17:30

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