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Where do angry birds tweet? Income inequality and online hate in Italy

Denti, Daria and Faggian, Alessandra (2021) Where do angry birds tweet? Income inequality and online hate in Italy. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 14 (3). 483 – 506. ISSN 1752-1378

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Identification Number: 10.1093/cjres/rsab016


Do spatial socioeconomic features influence a digital behaviour like cyberhate? Our contribution provides an answer to this question, showing how high levels of income inequality determine high volumes of hate tweets in Italy. Our findings are robust to potential endogeneity problems of income inequality, as well as to the inclusion of confounding factors and to competing estimation strategies. Additionally, we find that education does not act as a protective factor against cyberhate in unequal places, aligning with existing evidence showing that inequality may trigger intolerance, including among educated people, threatening the perceived stability of social positions. Also, in the Italian case, the perception of economic insecurity fuels cyberhate, alongside the transmission of self-interest values along family generations. The latter finding relates to existing evidence supporting the role of persistent social norms in shaping people’s attitudes.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2021 The Authors
Divisions: LSE
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions
H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
JEL classification: D - Microeconomics > D3 - Distribution > D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D74 - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J15 - Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology > Z10 - General
Date Deposited: 06 Oct 2021 14:24
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2021 10:30

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