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Ethnicity, household composition and COVID-19 mortality: a national linked data study

Nafilyan, Vahé, Islam, Nazrul, Ayoubkhani, Daniel, Gilles, Clare, Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal, Mathur, Rohini, Summerfield, Annabel, Tingay, Karen, Asaria, Miqdad ORCID: 0000-0002-3538-4417, John, Ann, Goldblatt, Peter, Banerjee, Amitava, Glickman, Myer and Khunti, Kamlesh (2021) Ethnicity, household composition and COVID-19 mortality: a national linked data study. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 114 (4). 182 - 211. ISSN 0141-0768

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Identification Number: 10.1177/0141076821999973


Objective To estimate the proportion of ethnic inequalities explained by living in a multi-generational household. Design Causal mediation analysis. Setting Retrospective data from the 2011 Census linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (2017-2019) and death registration data (up to 30 November 2020). Participants Adults aged 65 years or over living in private households in England from 2 March 2020 until 30 November 2020 (n=10,078,568). Main outcome measures Hazard ratios were estimated for COVID-19 death for people living in a multi-generational household compared with people living with another older adult, adjusting for geographic factors, socioeconomic characteristics and pre-pandemic health. Results Living in a multi-generational household was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 death. After adjusting for confounding factors, the hazard ratios for living in a multi-generational household with dependent children were 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–1.30) and 1.21 (95% CI 1.06–1.38) for elderly men and women. The hazard ratios for living in a multi-generational household without dependent children were 1.07 (95% CI 1.01–1.13) for elderly men and 1.17 (95% CI 1.07–1.25) for elderly women. Living in a multi-generational household explained about 11% of the elevated risk of COVID-19 death among elderly women from South Asian background, but very little for South Asian men or people in other ethnic minority groups. Conclusion Elderly adults living with younger people are at increased risk of COVID-19 mortality, and this is a contributing factor to the excess risk experienced by older South Asian women compared to White women. Relevant public health interventions should be directed at communities where such multi-generational households are highly prevalent.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2021 The Royal Society of Medicine
Divisions: LSE Health
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
H Social Sciences > HT Communities. Classes. Races
H Social Sciences > HQ The family. Marriage. Woman
Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2021 11:33
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2024 01:12

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