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Male and LGBT survivors of sexual violence in conflict situations: a realist review of health interventions in low-and middle-income countries

Kiss, Ligia, Quinlan-Davidson, Meaghen, Pasquero, Laura, Tejero, Patricia Ollé, Hogg, Charu, Theis, Joachim, Park, Andrew, Zimmerman, Cathy and Hossain, Mazeda (2020) Male and LGBT survivors of sexual violence in conflict situations: a realist review of health interventions in low-and middle-income countries. Conflict and Health, 14 (1). ISSN 1752-1505

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Identification Number: 10.1186/s13031-020-0254-5

Abstract

Conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) against women and girls has been the subject of increasing research and scholarship. Less is known about the health of men, boys and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and other gender non-binary persons who survive CRSV. This paper is the first systematic realist review on medical, mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions that focusses on male and LGBT survivors of CRSV. The review explores the gender differences in context, mechanisms and outcomes that underpin interventions addressing the health and psychosocial wellbeing of male and LGBT survivors. The aim is to contribute to the design and delivery of gender-sensitive and, when needed, gender-specific approaches for interventions that respond to specific needs of different groups of all survivors. We conducted a systematic search of academic and grey literature to identify medical and MHPSS interventions that included men, boys and LGBT survivors. We identified interventions specifically targeting women and girls that we used as comparators. We then purposively sampled studies from the fields of gender and health, and sexual abuse against men and LGBT people for theory building and testing. We identified 26 evaluations of interventions for survivors of CRSV. Nine studies included male survivors, twelve studies focussed exclusively on female survivors and one study targeted children and adolescents. No intervention evaluation focussed on LGBT survivors of CRSV. The interventions that included male survivors did not describe specific components for this population. Results of intervention evaluations that included male survivors were not disaggregated by gender, and some studies did not report the gender composition. Although some mental health and psychosocial consequences of sexual violence against men and boys may be similar among male and female survivors, the way each process trauma, display symptoms, seek help, adhere to treatment and improve their mental health differ by gender. Initiatives targeting male and LGBT survivors of CRSV need to be designed to actively address specific gender differences in access, adherence and response to MHPSS interventions. Models of care that are gender-sensitive and integrated to local resources are promising avenues to promote the health of male and LGBT survivors of CRSV.

Item Type: Article
Official URL: https://conflictandhealth.biomedcentral.com/
Additional Information: © 2020 The Authors
Divisions: IGA: Centre for Women Peace and Security
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HQ The family. Marriage. Woman
J Political Science > JZ International relations
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology
Date Deposited: 27 Mar 2020 10:21
Last Modified: 30 May 2020 23:12
URI: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/103856

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