Cookies?
Library Header Image
LSE Research Online LSE Library Services

How chunks, long-term working memory and templates offer a cognitive explanation for neuroimaging data on expertise acquisition: a two-stage framework

Guida, Alessandro, Gobet, Fernand, Tardieu, Hubert and Nicolas, Serge (2012) How chunks, long-term working memory and templates offer a cognitive explanation for neuroimaging data on expertise acquisition: a two-stage framework. Brain and Cognition, 79 (3). 221 - 244. ISSN 0278-2626

Full text not available from this repository.

Identification Number: 10.1016/j.bandc.2012.01.010

Abstract

Our review of research on PET and fMRI neuroimaging of experts and expertise acquisition reveals two apparently discordant patterns in working-memory-related tasks. When experts are involved, studies show activations in brain regions typically activated during long-term memory tasks that are not observed with novices, a result that is compatible with functional brain reorganization. By contrast, when involving novices and training programs, studies show a decrease in brain regions typically activated during working memory tasks, with no functional reorganization. We suggest that the latter result is a consequence of practice periods that do not allow important structures to be completely acquired: knowledge structures (i.e., Ericsson and Kintsch's retrieval structures; Gobet and Simon's templates) and in a lesser way, chunks. These structures allow individuals to improve performance on working-memory tasks, by enabling them to use part of long-term memory as working memory, causing a cerebral functional reorganization. Our hypothesis is that the two brain activation patterns observed in the literature are not discordant, but involve the same process of expertise acquisition in two stages: from decreased activation to brain functional reorganization. The dynamic of these two physiological stages depend on the two above-mentioned psychological constructs: chunks and knowledge structures.

Item Type: Article
Official URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/brain-and-co...
Additional Information: © 2012 Elsevier Inc
Divisions: CPNSS
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Date Deposited: 10 Dec 2019 09:24
Last Modified: 20 Jun 2020 02:56
URI: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/102838

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item