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Iraq's popular mobilisation forces: the possibilities for Disarmament, Demobilisation & Reintegration

Al-Khafaji, Hayder (2019) Iraq's popular mobilisation forces: the possibilities for Disarmament, Demobilisation & Reintegration. LSE Middle East Centre Report (November 2019). LSE Middle East Centre, London, UK.

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This paper examines the divergence in the applicability of the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) process to Iraq as compared to the more traditional experiences of Nepal, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. Iraq’s experience is defined by the heterogeneous identity of the Hashd (Hashd al-Shaabi, or Popular Mobilisation Forces) combatants, in terms of their different allegiances (to both state and non-state players) and their legitimatisation by both the religious and political establishments. In contrast, the conflicting parties in Nepal, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan have more homogenous identities and these better resemble classic internecine civil wars. Iraq can only go through a stripped-down version of the DDR process because the majority of the Hashd are not willing to be disarmed, either because they believe the war is not over, or because they have transmuted into Iraq’s defence and security apparatus and, in some instances, have entered the political arena. Iraq can only manage partial demobilisation, reinsertion and reintegration of its native Hashd combatants because of the lack of political will and leadership, the absence of state and civil society mechanisms and because elements of the Hashd believe themselves already part of the state’s institutions.

Item Type: Monograph (Report)
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2019 The Author
Divisions: LSE
Subjects: U Military Science > U Military Science (General)
D History General and Old World > DS Asia
J Political Science > JZ International relations
Date Deposited: 14 Nov 2019 10:15
Last Modified: 16 May 2024 13:30

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