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Political identity: experimental evidence on anti-Americanism in Pakistan

Bursztyn, Leonardo, Callen, Mike, Ferman, Bruno, Gulzar, Saad, Hasanain, Ali and Yuchtman, Noam (2020) Political identity: experimental evidence on anti-Americanism in Pakistan. Journal of the European Economic Association, 18 (5). 2532 – 2560. ISSN 1542-4774

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Identification Number: 10.1093/jeea/jvz053


We identify Pakistani men’s willingness to pay to preserve their anti-American identity using two experiments imposing clearly specified financial costs on anti-American expression, with minimal consequential or social considerations. In two distinct studies, one-quarter to one-third of subjects forgo payments from the U.S. government worth around one-fifth of a day’s wage to avoid an identity-threatening choice: anonymously checking a box indicating gratitude toward the U.S. government. We find sensitivity to both payment size and anticipated social context: when subjects anticipate that rejection will be observable by others, rejection falls suggesting that, for some, social image can outweigh self-image.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2019 The Authors
Divisions: Economics
Subjects: J Political Science > JA Political science (General)
H Social Sciences > HG Finance
JEL classification: P - Economic Systems > P1 - Capitalist Systems > P16 - Political Economy
D - Microeconomics > D0 - General > D00 - General
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C9 - Design of Experiments > C90 - General
Date Deposited: 29 Aug 2019 09:51
Last Modified: 06 Apr 2024 19:00

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