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Diagnostic value of tryptase in food allergic reactions: a prospective study of 160 adult peanut challenges

Dua, Shelley, Dowey, James, Foley, Loraine, Islam, Sabita, King, Yvonne, Ewan, Pamela and Clark, Andrew T. (2018) Diagnostic value of tryptase in food allergic reactions: a prospective study of 160 adult peanut challenges. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 6 (5). 1692-1698.e1. ISSN 2213-2198

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Identification Number: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.01.006

Abstract

Background: Serum tryptase is useful in diagnosing drug and venom anaphylaxis. Its utility in food anaphylaxis is unknown. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether tryptase rises in food allergic reactions, optimal sampling time points, and a diagnostic cutoff for confirming a clinical reaction. Methods: Characterized peanut allergic patients were recruited and underwent up to 4 peanut challenges and 1 placebo challenge each. Tryptase was measured serially on challenge days both before (baseline) and during the challenge. The peak percentage tryptase rise (peak/baseline) was related to reaction severity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated establishing an optimal diagnostic cutoff. Results: Tryptase was analyzed in 160 reactive (9% anaphylaxis) and 45 nonreactive (placebo) challenges in 50 adults aged 18 to 39 years. Tryptase rose above the normal range (11.4 ng/mL) in 4 of 160 reactions. When compared with baseline levels, a rise was observed in 100 of 160 (62.5%) reactions and 0 of 45 placebo challenges. The median rise (95% confidence interval [CI]) for all reactions was 25% (13.3% to 33.3%) and 70.8% (33.3% to 300%) during anaphylaxis. Peak levels occurred at 2 hours and correlated with severity (P <.05). Moderate-to-severe respiratory symptoms, generalized erythema, dizziness, and hypotension were correlated with a higher peak/baseline tryptase (P <.05). ROC curve analysis demonstrated the optimal cutoff to identify a reaction as a 30% rise (sensitivity 0.53; specificity 0.85), area under the curve 0.72 (95% CI, 0.67-0.78). Conclusions: Serum tryptase measurement is valuable in food allergic reactions, and correlates with symptom severity. Comparing peak reaction levels at 2 hours with baseline is essential. A rise in tryptase of 30% is associated with food allergic reactions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Divisions: Centre for Economic Performance
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Date Deposited: 25 Apr 2019 13:27
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2019 03:02
URI: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/100497

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