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Collective remittances and the state: The 3×1 Program in Mexican municipalities

Aparicio, Francisco Javier and Meseguer, Covadonga (2012) Collective remittances and the state: The 3×1 Program in Mexican municipalities. World Development, 40 (1). pp. 206-222. ISSN 0305-750X

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Identification Number: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.05.016


The Mexican 3×1 Program for Migrants is a grant scheme whereby the municipal, state, and federal governments match by 3 to 1 the funds that migrant clubs send to their hometowns to finance public projects. Using municipal-level data on Program participation for the period 2002–07, we evaluate both the economic bias and the political bias of the Program. Since migration and poverty have a nonlinear relationship, we find that poorer municipalities are less likely to participate than those with medium poverty levels. We also find that the Program rewards PAN strongholds rather than competitive municipalities.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Divisions: International Relations
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions
H Social Sciences > HJ Public Finance
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology
J Political Science > JV Colonies and colonization. Emigration and immigration. International migration
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2015 09:31
Last Modified: 18 Jun 2024 20:00

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