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Migration and distributive politics: the political economy of Mexico's 3 × 1 Program

Meseguer, Covadonga and Aparicio, Francisco Javier (2012) Migration and distributive politics: the political economy of Mexico's 3 × 1 Program. Latin American Politics and Society, 54 (4). pp. 147-178. ISSN 1531-426X

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Identification Number: 10.1111/j.1548-2456.2012.00176.x


Mexico's 3 × 1 Program for Migrants is a matching grant scheme that seeks to direct the money sent by migrant organizations abroad to the provision of public and social infrastructure and to productive projects in migrants’ communities of origin. To this end, the municipal, state, and federal administrations match the amount sent by hometown associations by 3 to 1. This article explores the impact on the operation of the 3 × 1 of a particular facet of Mexican political life: its recent democratization and the increasing political fragmentation at the municipal level. The study finds a lower provision of public projects in jurisdictions where a high number of political parties compete. This finding casts doubt on the claim that policy interventions such as the 3 × 1 Program actually improve local public goods provision at the local level under increasing political competition.

Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Additional Information: © 2012 University of Miami
Divisions: International Relations
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions
H Social Sciences > HJ Public Finance
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology
J Political Science > JV Colonies and colonization. Emigration and immigration. International migration
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2015 09:21
Last Modified: 16 May 2024 01:33

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