Liebenau, Jonathan (2013) Modernising the business of health: pharmaceuticals in Britain, in comparison with Germany and the United States, 1890-1940. Industrial and Corporate Change, 22 (3). pp. 807-847. ISSN 0960-6491
The pharmaceutical industry adopted technology in markedly different ways in Germany, the United States, and Britain. During the early 20th century, useful knowledge became a commercial asset, but British intellectual property and drug regulation laws created neither pressures nor rewards for growth. Key differences emerged in the ways in which intellectual property was used, in the development of testing and standardization, and in the links between researchers and industry. We show how firms sought to control the new knowledge assets that built the business of health. This also helps to explain the choices made in the three countries as to what forms of investments best further industry goals.
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